Types of surgery to treat arthritis
Some people with arthritis need surgery to relieve symptoms such as joint pain and difficulty moving.
Arthrodesis involves fusing together the two bones that form a joint. When the bones are joined together in this way, they lose their flexibility. But fused joints can bear weight better, are more stable and are no longer painful.
Arthrodesis is most often performed on the ankles, wrists, fingers and thumbs.
Arthroscopy involves repairing the joint through small cuts in the skin. The surgeon uses an arthroscope (a thin tube with a light at the end) to view the inside of the damaged joint on a television monitor.
Then, using tiny instruments, the surgeon can correct what may be causing the joint pain by trimming damaged cartilage, repairing torn cartilage, or removing loose particles or debris from the joint.
Arthroscopy is usually used to treat knees and shoulders. While the incisions are small and there is minimal pain, it can take several weeks for the joint to fully recover.
Joint replacement involves replacing the damaged bone or tissue with an artificial joint. The new joint may be metal, ceramic and/or plastic. Depending on the problem, the entire joint—or just a part of it—may be replaced.
Joint replacement surgery has been used for many years with excellent results, especially for knees and hips, according to the Arthritis Foundation. Other joints can also be replaced, including shoulders, elbows and knuckles.
It may take three to six months to recover completely from surgery. And over time, the artificial joint can loosen or wear out, so another surgery may be required. But new joints typically last at least 15 years or longer.
Osteotomy involves cutting and reshaping or repositioning bones to improve their alignment.
Often used on knee joints, this surgery can help shift weight-bearing stress from a damaged section of the joint to a healthier section. That can ease pain, restore function and may even stimulate new cartilage growth, according to the AAOS.
However, the positive results may not last forever. Many people will, at some point, need to have the knee completely replaced.
Resection involves removing part or all of a bone.
This surgery may be considered when diseased joints in the foot make walking difficult and painful. Resection may also ease pain and improve the function of the wrist, thumb or elbow.
Synovectomy involves removing the diseased lining of the joint—the synovium—to help relieve pain and swelling. Depending on the size of the joint, the surgery can be done either through a standard incision (open surgery) or through one or more smaller incisions with tiny instruments.
Synovectomy can be used to help treat rheumatoid arthritis and can help prevent or slow down destruction of the joints. But the synovium tends to grow back over several years and can cause repeated problems, the Arthritis Foundation says.
Your doctor can help you decide if surgery might help you and, if so, what type of surgery would be best.